如何呈现给高管。

2021年1月2日。Filed undermanagement127.staff-plus26.

您是否向公司高管提供了有关关键工程倡议的,走进房间兴奋并留下击败?也许你只在不相关的问题出轨之前将它发给你的第二次幻灯片。也许你通过你的整个演讲工作只有让人们说,“很棒的工作”,并没有任何有用的辩论。之后,你不太确定发生了什么,但你知道它不顺利。

在您的职业生涯中,您可能不会经常与公司高管互动。当然,如果它是一个足够小的公司,你可能会,但它不是常态。然而,当您进一步进入您的职业时,越来越多地,您的影响将受到有效影响高管的能力的限制。而与权威保持一致影响高管的先决条件,在吗are also some new communication skills for you to develop.

Why this is hard

Everyone has worked with a terrible executive at some point in their career, but most executives aren't awful. Almost all executives are outstanding at某事;这通常是那个某事不是您与他们通信的主题。当您将缺乏熟悉的域与手头有限的时间结合起来时,沟通是一个挑战。

Those are garden-variety communication challenges, though, and communicating with executives can be unexpectedly difficult for a less apparent reason: the executive has become accustomed to consuming reality preprocessed in a particular way.

Any given executive is almost always uncannily good at one way of consuming information. They feel most comfortable consuming data in that particular way, and the communication systems surrounding them are optimized to communicate with them in that one way. I think of this as preprocessing reality, and preprocessing information the wrong way for a given executive will frequently create miscommunication that neither participant can quite explain.

For example, some executives have an extraordinary talent for pattern matching. Their first instinct in any presentation is to ask a series of detailed, seemingly random questions until they can pattern match against their previous experience. If you try to give a structured, academic presentation to that executive, they will be bored, and you will waste most of your time presenting information they won't consume. Other executives will disregard anything you say that you don't connect to a specific piece of data or dataset. You'll be presenting with confidence, knowing that your data is in the appendix, and they'll be increasingly discrediting your proposal as unsupported.

In most other scenarios, miscommunication creates latency rather than errors. Still, when you're communicating with executives, you'll often not get a second chance to discuss a given topic before the relevant decision is made. Invest ahead of the discussion to avoid lamentations afterward.

How to communicate effectively

有效与高管沟通的基础是清楚地了解你为什么首先与他们沟通。您可能被用来与人们沟通,以改变主意或通知他们关于您的项目,但这可能不是此处的情况。当您与执行行政通信时,它几乎总是三件事之一:规划,报告状态或解决未对准。

虽然这些是不同的活动,但您的目标始终可以尽可能多地从行政方面提取。如果你进入会议改变主意,你可能会遇到不灵活的。进入会议以了解如何与他们的优先事项对齐。您将遇到战略性,可能会带来足够的信息,以适应您现有的计划,以便在执行的新阐述的重点或限制内工作。

该best way to extract their perspective is by writing a structured document. Writing forces you to think comprehensively about your beliefs and data. The structure ensures you focus the reader on what's important. Barbara Minto, whose该Pyramid Principleis the most influential work on effective business communication, is also a big fan of structure:

控制您呈现您的想法的顺序是清除写作所需的最重要行为。在给予个人想法总结之前,最清晰的序列总是始终提供总结的想法。我不能强调这一点太多了。

该re are many structures that can work, but I'd particularly recommend every document's opening paragraph follow the SCQA format:

  • Situation: what is the relevant context?: We've been falling behind our competition in shipping product features for two years. Last year, we doubled our engineering team but shipped fewer features than the year before.
  • Complication:why is the current situation problematic?: We plan to double our engineering team again this year, but based on last year's experience, we think that will decrease velocity further while significantly increasing our organizational budget.
  • Question:what is the core question to address?例:我们是否应该继续向今年进行双重工程的计划继续前进?
  • Answer:what is your best answer to the posed question? Example: We should stop hiring for the next six months and focus on gelling our existing team. Based on progress at that point, we should refresh our hiring plan for the remainder of the year.

In many discussions, a well-structured opening paragraph is enough to spark an important conversation. Although in those cases, you might not discuss the rest of your document, the process of writing the document is still an important step in refining your thinking.

Relatively few folks employ a formal structure for the entirety of their document, but there is at least one popular format that some folks find valuable: Minto's Pyramid Principle from the aforementioned book. Start by brainstorming your proposal into a series of arguments that support your answer. Once you've written them all down, group them into related arguments. Shape those groups into three top-level arguments, with up to three sub-arguments supporting each of those top-level arguments. Recursively apply this approach, ensuring each argument summarizes its at-most-three sub-arguments. Order the arguments within each group by descending importance. At that point, you're done.

虽然我个人找到了SCQA立即有用,但我承认,当我第一次尝试遵循金字塔原则时,它给了我与盯着野蛮主义建筑的情绪反应。它在练习中已经成长,但我仍然推荐大多数人首先采用SCQA作为核心实践,如果您获得反馈,只能通过您的演示难以遵循的反馈,只采用全部金字塔原则。

写入结构化文件后,从同行和利益相关者收集反馈。在演示前与利益相关者对齐,有时会呼唤nemawashi,在减少惊喜时非常有效。您的一些同龄人应该有经验向高管提供,并将有关改进的有用反馈。

For the presentation itself, set a clear agenda, but don't focus on rote conformance. A great meeting with executive leadership is defined by engaged discussion, not addressing every topic on the agenda. Some will consider this a controversial position, preferring to measure every meeting by its action items, but this ignores the often more valuable relationship establishment and development aspects of these meetings.

Mistakes to avoid

Even if you do a great job preparing for your execution presentation, these things sometimes go wrong. There's nothing you can do that will avoid every bad path, but you can avoid most of the anti-patterns that routinely sink these meetings.

Never fight feedback。It's very common for an executive to have a critical piece of feedback but to not quite have the right framing to communicate it within the moment. You want them to deliver the feedback anyway, not hold it back and probably forget to give it later. If you show up as resistant to feedback, then they'll start swallowing their comments, and you'll get relatively little out of the meeting. Focus on gathering feedback; don't worry about whether you agree with it until you have more time afterward. If there's a decision that needs to be made that you disagree with, then you should inject one or two pieces of relevant data that might change their mind, but afterward, let it go. You'll be more effective by reflecting on the feedback and changing their mind later than continuing to push back within the meeting.

不要逃避责任或问题。许多人试图隐藏他们的领导力的问题,这总是很糟糕。成功的人们看看向高管提供信息:一旦它在桌子上,你就可以朝着解决它而不是隐藏它。如果执行官在会议期间嗅出问题,这尤其如此。倾向于反馈,不要逃避它。您将通过同意他们的角度来创建更多可信度,并在以后更多的数据跟进。您将通过与他们争论来损害您的可信度。

Don't present a question without an answer.A frequent piece of advice given to new leaders is to "never bring your manager a problem without a solution." That's not generally great advice, but if you present a problem to an executive without a proposed answer, then in the back of their mind, they're wondering if they need to hire a more senior leader to supplement or replace you. You can't create alignment in the room unless you have a proposal for folks to align behind.

避免学术风格演示。您所教导的方式介绍学校的主题是更加有或更少的是向高管提出的完全错误的方法。该Minto金字塔原则如果您遵循圣经,将朝着正确的方向转向。

Don't fixate on your preferred outcome.对于他们希望他们能够抵抗明确,不可避免的迹象,这对他们希望能够抵抗这种明确,不可避免的迹象,这是非常常见的。对“错误”的决定进行了沮丧,这很容易,但要记住,请记住,你缺少有很多的背景有助于。没有永久性决定,几乎每决定都会在未来两年内多次重新考虑。

向高管们则可能让人生畏this might be more advice than helpful. If you want to boil it all down to one concise tip: send an early draft to an executive attending the meeting and ask them what to change. If you listen to and apply that feedback, you'll figure out the other pieces as you go.