雅虎老板部分地由内部雅虎队推动！搜索技术命名Vespa。我们遇到了一堆挑战，我决定说服我的团队我们应该迁移到SOLR。我的经理要求我presentation for our next team meeting. The meeting came, I started to present, and within two slides things fell apart.
- Communication is company specific.每家公司都有不同的沟通方式和模式。成功的演示者可能无法告诉你他们的成功所做的事情，但如果你看着它们并记笔记，你将识别一些一致的模式。每次观看带领领导的人，都会研究他们的方法。
- Start with the conclusion.Particularly in written communication, folks skim until they get bored, and then stop reading. Accommodate this behavior by starting with what’s important, don’t build towards it gradually.
- Frame why the topic matters。通常，您将介绍您对您非常熟悉的区域，并且对您的工作可能非常明显。对于那些不经常考虑该地区的人来说，这将不那么明显。首先解释您对公司的工作问题。
- 每个人都喜欢叙述。Another aspect of framing the topic is providing a narrative of where things are, how you got here, and where you’re going now. This should be a sentence or two along the lines of, “Last year we had trouble closing several important customers due to concerns about our scalability. We identified our databases as our constraints to scaling, and since then our focus has been moving to a new sharding model that enables horizontal scaling, which is going well, and we expect to finish in Q3.”
- Answer directly。高级领导者往往是间接地对广域领域负责，并经常刺破调试问题的地区。他们的经验“调试穿孔”调整他们的雷达以获得避免答案，您不想成为该屏幕上的昙花一现。而不是隐藏问题，使用它们作为解释您解决计划计划的机会。
- Deep in the data.You should be deep enough in your data that you can use it to answer unexpected questions. This means spending time exploring the data, and the most common way to do that is to run a thorough目标设置锻炼。
- Derive actions from principles.其中一个目标是提供您如何查看主题的心理模型，允许人们熟悉如何做出决策。显示您的“数据”是其中的一部分，另一个方面是定义您正在使用的指导原理来接近决策。
- Discuss the details。Some executives test presenters by diving into the details, trying to uncover an area the presenter is uncomfortable speaking on. You should be familiar with the details, e.g. project statuses, but I think it’s usually best to reframe the discussion when you get too far into the details. Try to pop up to either the data or the principles, which tend to be more useful conversations.
- 准备很多;练习一点。If you’re presenting to your entire company, practicing your presentation is time well spent. Leadership presentations tend to quickly detour, so practice isn’t quite as useful. Practice until you’re comfortable, but prefer to prepare instead; getting deeper into the data, details and principles. As a corollary, if you’re knowledgeable in the area you’re responsible for, and have spent time getting comfortable with the format, over time you’ll find that you won’t need to prepare much for these specifically. Rather, whether you’re able to present effectively without much preparation will become a signal for whether you’re keeping up with your span of responsibility.
- Make a clear ask.If you don’t go into a meeting with leadership with a clear goal, your meeting will either go nowhere or go poorly. Start the meeting by explicitly framing your goal!
That’s a lot to remember, so I’ve synthesized these ideas into a loose template. There absolutely is not a single right way to present to senior leaders, but hopefully the template is a useful starting point.
My general approach to presenting to senior leaders is:
- Tie topic to business value。One or two sentences to answer, “Why should anyone care?”
- Establish historical narrative。Two to four sentences to help folks understand how things are going, how we got here, and what the next planned step is.
- Explicit ask。你从观众寻找什么？一两个句子。
- Data-driven diagnosis。沿着一行strategy’s diagnosis phase, explain the current constraints and context, primarily through data. Try to provide enough raw data to allow folks to follow your analysis. If you only provide analysis, then you’re asking folks to take you on trust, which can come across as evasive. This should be a few paragraphs, up to a page.
- 决策原则。Explain the principles you’re applying against the diagnosis, articulating the mental model you are using to make decisions.
- What’s next and when it’ll be done。Apply your principles to the diagnosis to generate the next steps. It should be clear to folks reading along how your actions derive from your principles and the data. If it’s not, then either rework your principles or your actions!
- Return to explicit ask。The final step is to return to your explicit ask and ensure you get the information or guidance you need.
I’ve had a lot of luck with this format in general, and think you’ll find it pretty useful as a starting point. That said, the first rule remains true: communication is company specific. If things don’t quite work for this format in your company, then watch how other folks present. Given a few examples, you’ll be able to reverse engineer the discussions that go well into a workable template.